Demonstrative, distributive and quantitative adjectives and pronouns

1. this/these, that/those (demonstrative adjectives and pronouns)

A. Examples of use as adjectives:
this/that, these/those agree with their nouns in number. (They are the only adjectives to do this.)
this boy, this girl
these boys, these girls
that actor, that actress
those actor, those actresses
this tree, these trees
that tree, those trees
This beach was quite empty last year. 
I have to read all these books for my course.
What is that thing in the sky? 
Is that a flying saucer?
Those islands used to be inhabited.
Note the use of this/these and that/those + noun + of yours/Peter's/Ann's etc.
That car of yours is always breaking down (= Your car is always breaking down).
That brother of yours was drunk again last night (= Your brother was drunk again last night).
This diet of yours isn't having much effect (= Your diet...).
This phrase can be used, instead of your + noun, when the speaker wishes to make an emphatic comment. The comment is quite often, though not necessarily always, unfavourable.

B. Examples of use as pronouns:

This is my brother; those are Tom's brothers.
This is my umbrella; that is yours.
These are the old classrooms; those are the new ones.
What is that? It's a hovercraft.
this/that can represent clauses:
Our car broke down on the way to the airport. This made us late for the plane.
He said I was not a good wife. Wasn't that a horrible thing to say?

C. this/these, that/those used with one/ones
when there is some idea of comparison or selection, the pronoun one/ones is often placed after these demonstratives, but it is not essential except when the demonstrative is followed by an adjective:
1. This chair is too low. I'll sit in that (one).
2. Which do you like? I like this (one) best.
3. I like this blue one/these blue ones.
one is optional in (1) and (2); usual in (3).

2. each, every, everyone, everybody, everything (distributive adjectives and pronouns)
A. every compared to all
Technically, every means a number of people or things considered individually while all means a number of people or things considered as a group. But in practice every and its compounds are often used when we are thinking of a group.

B. each (adjective and pronoun) and every (adjective)
each means a number of persons or things considered individually. every can have this meaning but with every there is less emphasis on the individual. Every man had a weapon = 'All the men had weapons', and implies that the speaker went to each man in turn and checked that he had a weapon.
each is a pronoun and adjective: Each(man) knows what to do.
every is an adjective only: every man knows ...
each can be used of two or more persons or things, and is normally used of very small numbers. every is not normally used of very small numbers.
Both take a singular verb. The possessive adjective is his/her.

C. everyone/everybody and everything (pronouns)
everyone/everybody + singular verb is normally preferred to all (the) people + plural verb, i.e. we say everyone is ready instead of All the people are ready. There is no difference between everyone and everybody.
everything is similarly preferred to all (the) things, i.e. we say Everything has been wasted instead of All the things have been wasted.
The expressions all (the) people, all (the) things are possible when followed by a phrase or clause:
I got all the things you asked for.
All the people in the room clapped.
Otherwise they are rarely used.

D. Pronouns and possessive adjectives with everyone/everybody and everything
As everyone/everybody takes a singular verb, the pronoun should be he/him, she/her with possessive adjectives his and her. But this is only found in formal English. In ordinary conversation the plural forms they/them and their are used instead;
Has everyone got their books?
Everyone enjoys it, don't they?
Everyone likes their own way/ways of doing things.
everything, however, has the pronoun it, and possessive adjective its.

3. both, either, neither (pronouns and adjectives)
both means 'one and the other'. It takes a plural verb:
Both banks of the river were covered in bushes.
She has two sons. Both are taller than she is.
neither means 'not one and not the other'. It takes an affirmative singular verb:
Neither of them drinks coffee.
either means 'any one or two'.
Did you like his two songs? No, I didn't like either (of them).
neither + affirmative verb = either + negative verb.
neither is preferred at the beginning of a sentence:
Neither book gives the answer.
either could not be used here.
neither can also be used alone as a negative answer to a question:
Which did you buy? Neither.
either would not be used.
Pronouns and possessive adjectives with neither, either (used of people):
As they take singular verbs, the pronouns should be he/him and she/her and the possessive adjectives should be his and her. But in colloquial english there is a growing tendency to use they/them and their:
Neither of them could make up his mind (formal English).
Neither of them could make up their minds (colloquial).
Neither of them knew the way, did they/ (colloquial).

4. Numerals, a/an and one

A.  Numerals present little difficulty
The same form is used for adjectives and pronouns:
Six hundred people bought tickets.
Hundreds of tourists come to this museum.
we lost the first match but won the second and third.
one/ones must be added if the numeral is followed by an adjective alone:
Have you got a big plate? No. Would two small ones do?

B a/an and the
1. a/an and one (adjective) 
When counting or measuring time, distance, weight etc. we can use either a/an or one for the singular:
$1 = a/one dollar
$100 = a/one hundred dollars
It will take a/one month.
I bought a/one kilo of potatoes.
Lessons cost a/one dollar an hour.
The an before hour in this last expression is not replaceable by one.
But in other types of statement a/an and one are not normally interchangeable, because one + noun normally means 'one only/not more than one' and a/an does not mean this:
A shotgun is not no good (it is the wrong sort of the thing).
One shotgun is no good (I need two or three).
Special uses of one:
1 one (adjective/pronoun) used with another/others:
One (boy) wanted to read, another/others wanted to watch TV.
One day he wanted his lunch early, another day he wanted it late.
2 one can be used before day/week/month/year/summer/winter etc. or before the name of the day or month to denote a particular time when something happened:
One night there was a terrible storm.
One winter the snow fell early.
One day a telegram arrived.
3 one day can also be used to mean 'at some future date':
One day you'll be sorry you treated him so badly. (some day would also be possible.)

2. a/an and one (pronoun)
one is the pronoun equivalent of a/an:
Did you get a ticket? Yes, I managed to get one.
The plural of one used in this way is some (see next paragraph):
Did you buy grapes? Yes, I heard it.
Did you hear the speeches? Yes, I heard them.

4. Some, any, no and none
A 1 some and any (pronouns/adjectives) mean 'a certain number or amount'. They are used before plural or uncountable nouns. When used with plural nouns, some is a possible plural form of
a/an and one (see above for one/some):
Would you like a biscuit/some biscuits?
I took a photo/some photos.

2. Some and any compared
some is used:
With affirmative sentences:
They took some honey.
With questions when the answer 'yes' is expected:
Can I have some coffee?
Tourist (to travel agent): Can you give me some information about .... ?
In offers and requests:
Would you like some wine?
Could you do some typing for me?
any is used:
In negative sentences:
I haven't any matches and Tom hasn't any either.
With hardly, scarcely, barely (which are almost negatives):
I have hardly any time.
With questions except those noted above:
Have you any money?
Did you see any eagles?
After if/whether, and in expressions of doubt:
I don't think there is any petrol in the tank.
If you have any difficulty, let me know.

3. Some or any used with singular (countable) nouns
some can be used to mean 'an unspecified or unknown':
Some idiot parked his car outside my garage.
He doesn't believe in conventional medicine; he has some remedy of his own.
any can mean 'practically every', 'no particular (one)':
Any book about riding will tell you how to saddle a horse.
Any dictionary will give you the meaning of these words.
anybody/anyone/anything can have this meaning (but can also, of course, be used as in 1-3 above):
Ask anyone where the house is/Anyone will tell you where the house is.
What would you like to drink? Oh, anything (I don't mind what I drink).


B no and none
no (adjective) and none (pronoun) can be used with affirmative verbs to express a negative; they are therefore an alternative to negative verb + any:
I have no apples = I haven't any apples.
Tom has none = Tom hasn't any.
I took no photos = I didn't take any photos.
On the whole a negative verb + any is more usual than an affirmative verb + no/none.

5. Someone, somebody, something, anyone, anybody, anything, no one, nobody, nothing
A. Compounds formed with some, any and no follow the rules in A1 and B above:
A: Somebody/someone gave me a ticket for a pop concert.
B: No one/nobody has ever given me a free ticket for anything.
Does anyone know what time the concern starts?
Do you want anything from the chemist?
Would anybody like a drink?

B. someone, somebody, anyone, anybody, no one, nobody can be possessive:
Someone's passport has been stolen.
Is this somebody's/anybody's seat?
I don't want to waste anyone's time.

C. Pronouns and possessive adjectives with someone, somebody, anyone, anybody, no one, nobody
All these expressions have a singular meaning and take a singular verb:
Someone wants to speak to you on the phone.
The personal pronoun should logically be singular too, he/she, and the possessive adjective his/her, but to avoid the awkwardness of saying his or her whenever the gender is in doubt we generally use they and their istead:
No one saw Tom go out, did they?
Has anyone left their luggage on the train?
With something, anything, nothing there is no problem of gender, so we still use it:
Something went wrong, didn't it?

6. else placed after someone/anybody/nothing etc.
someone/somebody/something, anyone/anybody/anything, no one/nobody/nothing, everyone/everybody/everything and the adverbs somewhere, anywhere, everywhere, nowhere can be followed by else.
someone else = some other person Also somebody/something/somewhere else
anyone else = any other person Also anybody/anything/anywhere else
no one else = no other person Also nobody/nothing/nowhere else
everyone else = every other person Also everybody/everything/everywhere else

Examples:
I'm afraid I can't help you. You'll have to ask someone else.
There isn't anyone else! There's no one else to ask.
Note also:
somewhere else = in/at/to some other place
anywhere else = in/at/to any other place
nowhere else = in/at/to no other place
Are you going anywhere else?

someone/somebody, anyone/anybody, no one/nobody + else can be possessive:
I took someone else's coat.
Was anyone else's luggage opened?
No one else's luggage was opened.

7. other, another, others with one and some
A other forms:
form          adjective    pronoun
singular    another       another
plural        other           others
A: Have you met Bill's sisters?
B: I've met one. I didn't know he had another (sister).
A: Oh, he has two others/two other sisters.

B. one ... another/other(s), some ... other/other(s)
One student suggested a play, another (student)/other students/others wanted a concert.
Some tourists/Some of the tourists went on the beach; others explored the town.

C. some + singular noun + or other
As already mentioned, some can mean 'an unspecified or unknown', i.e. some here shows that the speaker doesn't know anything about the person or a thing. or other can be added to emphasize that the speaker isn't very interested:
He is taking some exam or other. (The speaker probably thinks exams are foolish.)
Who does that enormous yellow Rolls Royce belong to? Oh, I expect it belongs to some film star or other.
What's that noise in the streets? it's probably some demonstration or other.

D. one another and each other
Tom and Ann looked at each other = Tom looked at Ann and Ann looked at Tom.
Both one another and each other can be used of two or more, but one another is frequently preferred when there are more than two.

8. many and much (adjectives and pronouns)
A. As an adjective, many is used before plural countable nouns; much before uncountable nouns:
He didn't make many mistakes.
We haven't much milk.
Both can be used as pronouns:
Tom gets lots of letters but Ann doesn't get many.
You have plenty of petrol but I haven't much.
many and much are used mainly in the negative and interrogative.
In the affirmative many is usually replaced by a lot (of).
a lot (of) can also be used in the interrogative.
much is usually replaced by a lot (of) or a great deal (of).
a lot (of)/a great deal (of) can also be used in the interrogative. But both these expressions expect an affirmative answer.

B. many and a lot (of)
Interrogative:
Did you take many/a lot of photos?
Negative:
No, I didn't take many (photos).
Affirmative (object):
Yes, I took a lot (of photos).
many, however, is possible (1) in formal English and (2) in ordinary conversation if preceded by a great/a good/so/too:
1. I have met many people who share your views (formal).
2. I took a great/a good many photos.
I took so many photos the first day that I had no film left.
I took too many photos the first day.

Affirmative (subject):
Either many or a lot (of) can be used as the subject or as part of the subject of a verb:
many people think/ a lot of people think/many think

C. much and a lot (of)/a great deal (of)
Interrogative;
Did you have much/a lot of/a great deal of trouble getting visas?
Negative:
No, I didn't have much trouble.
affirmative (object):
Yes, I had a lot of/ a great deal of trouble.
But much is possible when qualified by so:
He ate so much at lunch that he was sleepy afterwards.
Affirmative (subject):
much is possible in formal English as the subject of a sentence.
Much will depend on what he says.
Much time has been wasted.
But A lot of time has been wasted would be more usual in ordinary conversation.

9. a little/a few and little/few (adjectives and pronouns)
a little/little are used before uncountable nouns:
a little time/little time
a few/few are used before plural countable nouns:
a few friends/few friends

A. a little, a few
a little is a small amount, or what the speaker considers a small amount. a few is a small number, or what the speaker considers a small number.
only placed before a little/a few emphasizes that the number really is small in the speaker's opinion.
But quite placed before a few increases the number considerably:
I have a few books on mathematics (two or three books, or more)
but I have quite a few books on mathematics (a lot of books).
a little can also be an adverb of degree used with comparative adjectives or adverbs:
The paper should be a little thicker than this.
Couldn't you work a little faster?

B. little and few
little and few denote scarcity or lack and have almost the force of a negative:
There is little danger of an earthquake = There isn't much/There is hardly any danger etc.
Few towns have such splendid trees = Not many/Hardly any towns have etc.
This use of little and few is mainly confined to written English (probably because in ordinary conversation little and few might easily be mistaken for a little/a few). In ordinary conversation, therefore, little and few are normally replaced by hardly any or not + much/many:
we saw little = We saw hardly anything/we didn't see much.
Few people know this = Hardly anyone knows/Not many people know this.
But little and few can be used more freely when they are qualified by very, too, so, extremely, comparatively, relatively etc.:
We have so few technicians that the machines are not serviced properly.
There is no difference in quantity between little and very little and few and very few. But the speaker who adds very wants to be more emphatic. very little/few might also be used alone in answer to a question:
Have you friends in this town? Very few.
You have saved something, surely? Very little.

10. so and not can represent a whole clause
A. After believe, expect, suppose, think and after it appears/seems:
Will Tom be at the party? I expect so/suppose so/think so = I think he will.
For the negative we use:
1. A negative verb with so:
Will the scheme be a success?
I don't believe so/expect so/suppose so/think so.
Are they making good progress?
It doesn't seem so.
or
2. An affirmative verb with not:
It won't take long, will it?
No, I suppose not or I don't suppose so.
The plane didn't land in Calcutta, did it?
I believe not or I don't believe so.
Note that I think not, used in answer to a suggestion or request for permission , would mean that the suggestion is turned down or the request refused:
Shall we eat in the garden? I think not.

B. so and not can be used similarly after hope and be afraid (= be sorry to say):
Is Peter coming with us? I hope so.
Will you have to pay duty on this? I'm afraid so.
The negative here is made with an affirmative verb + not:
Have you got a work permit? I'm afraid not.

C. so and not can be used after say and tell + object:
How do you know there is going to be a demonstration?
Jack said so/Jack told me so.
For tell the only negative form is negative verb + so:
Tom didn't tell me so.
For say there are two negative forms, but the meaning is not the same:
Tom didn't say so = Tom didn't say that there would be a demonstration.
Tom said not = Tom said there wouldn't be a demonstration.

D. so can be used after do/did but is not very common in modern English:
You should take an hour's walk every day. I'd do so if I had time.
But normally we would say:
I would if I had time.

 
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