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There has always been worrying part for the professionals when the moment comes of making presentation. There are many ways and different methods required to use w

hile giving presentation. If it is an academic institution, then presenter's role matters a lot. Same case is also when public presentation is given for any promotion. However, as far as company presentation is concerned, a presenter is supposed to have ideas about comparing data, analytical skills, and of course have skills of chart presentation on projector. And same kind of different parameters required for the role of an anchor, as anchor has to alert the people, have to entertain meanwhile the next segment is going to be catered. Here, we are going to present some interesting thoughts and skills that require for different kind of presentation skills.

Skill 1 Starting a Presentation

In modern English, Presentations tend to be much less formal than they were even twenty years ago. Most audience these days prefer a relatively informal approach. However, there is a certain structure to the opening of a Presentation that you should observe.

Get people's attention
  • If I could have everybody's attention.
  • If we can start.
  • Perhaps we should begin?
  • Let's get started.
Welcome them
  • Welcome to Microsoft.
  • Thank you for coming today.
  • Good morning, ladies and gentlemen.
  • On behalf of Intel, I'd like to welcome you.
Introduce yourself
  • My name's Jane Shaw. I'm responsible for travel arrangements.
  • For those of you who don't know me, my name's Tom Stotter.
  • As you know, I'm in charge of public relations.
  • I'm the new Marketing Manager.
State the purpose of your presentation
  • This morning I'd like to present our new processor.
  • Today I'd like to discuss our failures in the Japanese market and suggest a new approach.
  • This afternoon, I'd like to report on my study into the German market.
  • What I want to do this morning is to talk to you about our new mobile telephone system.
  • What I want to do is to tell you about our successes and failures in introducing new working patterns.
  • What I want to do is to show you how we've made our first successful steps in the potentially huge Chinese market.
State how you want to deal with questions.
  • If you have any questions, I'll be happy to answer them as we go along.
  • Feel free to ask any questions.
  • Perhaps we can leave any questions you have until the end?
  • There will be plenty of time for questions at the end.
Of course, these are only suggestions and other language is possible. Even within this limited group of phrases, just choose a few you feel comfortable with and learn and use those.

Skill 2 Signposting

When we are giving a presentation, there are certain key words we use to ’signpost’ different stages in our presentation. These words are not difficult to learn but it is absolutely essential that you memorize them and can use them when you are under pressure giving a presentation.
When you want to make your next point, you ‘move on’.
  • Moving on to the next point.
  • I’d like to move on to the next point if there are no further questions
When you want to change to a completely different topic, you ‘turn to’.
  • I’d like to turn to something completely different.
  • Let’s turn now to our plans for next year.
When you want to give more details about a topic you ‘expand’ or ‘elaborate’.
  • I’d like to expand more on this problem we have had in Chicago.
  • Would you like me to expand a little more on that or have you understood enough?
  • I don’t want to elaborate any more on that as I'm short of time.
When you want to talk about something which is off the topic of your presentation, you ‘digress’.
  • I’d like to digress here for a moment and just say a word of thanks to Bob for organizing this meeting.
  • Digressing for a moment, I'd like to say a few words about our problems in Chicago.
When you want to refer back to an earlier point, you ‘go back’.
  • Going back to something I said earlier, the situation in Chicago is serious.
  • I’d like to go back to something Jenny said in her presentation.
To just give the outline of a point, you ’summarize’.
  • If I could just summarize a few points from John’s report.
  • I don’t have a lot of time left so I'm going to summarize the next few points.
To repeat the main points of what you have said, you ‘recap’.
  • I’d like to quickly recap the main points of my presentation.
  • Recapping quickly on what was said before lunch,……
For your final remarks, you ‘conclude’.
  • I’d like to conclude by leaving you with this thought ……
  • If I may conclude by quoting Karl Marx …….
Skill 3 Survival Language

In modern English, Presentations tend to be much less formal than they were even twenty years ago. Most audience these days prefer a relatively informal approach. However, there is a certain structure to the opening of a Presentation that you should observe.
I got the language for today's lesson from an excellent book by Mark Powell called "Presenting in English ".

If you get your facts wrong.
·         I am terribly sorry. What I meant to say was this.
·         Sorry. What I meant is this.
If you have been going too fast and your audience is having trouble keeping up with you.
·         Let me just recap on that.
·         I want to recap briefly on what I have been saying.
If you have forgotten to make a point.
·         Sorry, I should just mention one other thing.
·         If I can just go back to the previous point, there is something else that I forgot to mention.
If you have been too complicated and want to simplify what you said.
·         So, basically, what I am saying is this.
·         So, basically, the point I am trying to get across is this.
If you realize that what you are saying makes no sense.
·         Sorry, perhaps I did not make that quite clear.
·         Let me rephrase that to make it quite clear.
If you cannot remember the term in English.
·         Sorry, what is the word I am looking for?
·         Sorry, my mind has gone blank. How do you say 'escargot' in English?
If you are short of time.
·         So just to give you the main points.
·         As we are short of time, this is just a quick summary of the main points.

Skill 4 A Friendly Face

  • When you stand up in front of that audience, you're going to be really nervous. 
  • Poor speakers pay little or no attention to their audience as people. Big mistake. 
  • If you can see your audience as a group of individuals, you'll be much more likely to connect with those individuals. 
  • Start looking around your audience. See that big guy with his arms folded and an ‘impress me’ look on his face? Best not to look at him too much. 
  • How about that lady with the big smile, looking encouragingly towards you? OK, that’s your mother, she doesn’t count. 
  • But that other lady with a similar smile is someone you don’t know. But from now on she’s your ‘friend’. Every time that you need any encouragement, look in her direction. Make good eye contact. Establish a form of communication between you. And now you've found one ‘friend’, you'll begin to see others in the audience. 
  • Pick out ‘friends’ all round the room. If you see an ‘impress me’ person and get discouraged, switch your view back to one of your ‘friends’.
Once you are aware that there are people in your audience who want you to succeed, you'll be much more likely to succeed.

Skill 5 Microphones

  • Microphones can be a real problem. Very few of us use them frequently and so, when we have to talk into them in an already nervous state, we can easily make elementary mistakes. 
  • As a general rule, try to speak more clearly when you are using a microphone. (It will probably help if you speak a bit more slowly.) 
  • If you have a free-standing mike, step back from it a bit. This will enable you to speak louder and to vary your tone and inflection. 
  • If you are too close, your voice will sound monotonous and your audience will fall asleep. 
  • Don't turn your head away from the microphone while you are speaking. But do turn it away if you cough or sneeze!
  • Any little movement you make, such as shuffling your papers, will be amplified by the mike. Cut out the nervous gestures!
  • If you are wearing a clip-on mike, make sure it is not rubbing up against some clothing or jewellery. The noise this makes could ruin your presentation.
  • If you have a radio-mike, make sure it is switched on when you are presenting and switched off at all other times. This particularly applies when you go to the restroom!

Skill 6 Dealing with Nerves

Almost everybody is nervous when they stand up to speak. There’s no shame in being nervous. However, if you are too nervous, your anxiety will spread to your audience, making them nervous in turn.
So how can you stop yourself from feeling too nervous? Here are a few tips.
1. Don't get hung up about being nervous. It’s a normal human reaction. Don't make yourself more nervous because you're nervous.
2. Walk off your excessive nervousness. If possible, walk outside and get some fresh air at the same time. But a walk down the corridor is better than no walk.
3. Don't let your legs go to sleep. Keep the blood supply moving. Keep both feet on the floor and lean forward. Wiggle your toes. If you can stand up without disturbing anybody, do so.
4. Work your wrists, arms and shoulders to get the tension out of them. Gentle movements, not a major workout, will remove that tension.
5. Work your jaw. Gentle side-to-side or circular motion will help to loosen it.
6. Repeat positive affirmations quietly to yourself. “I am a good presenter.” It may seem corny but it works.
7. Above all, breathe deeply. Make sure your stomach is going out when you breathe in.
Don't be self-conscious about these warm-up activities. Most good speakers do them. Most people won't even notice that you are doing them. They're here to hear you speak, they're not interested in what you do when you are not in the limelight.

Skill 7 Stand Up When You Speak

I don't think you're going to like today’s point. I don't  like it very much myself but it’s got to be done. For most purposes, when you give a presentation you should stand. Not clutching the back of your chair for support, not leaning against the podium but two feet on the floor facing your audience.
There are times when sitting is right. When it’s an informal discussion, for example, where everybody is to contribute. But most of the time you need to stand.
  • You can move around the room. This has the simple effect that people will look at you, not shut their eyes and drift off
  • You can make eye contact with everybody
  • You can reach all your props and teaching material easily
  • You're involving your whole body in the presentation. Many people think this makes it more memorable.
  • You're sending out the signal to the participants that ‘this will be short’. Only a few self-obsessed people stand up in front of audiences for longer than they need to. And you're not one of those, are you?
The worst part of standing up is the actual standing up. Most people don’t feel at ease as they get out of their chair and walk forward to their speaking position. Here are a couple of tips.
  • As you're waiting, keep your feet flat on the floor. Don’t have them crossed. Trust me, getting up and walking will be so much easier.
  • Decide in advance where you are going to stand. Focus on that spot
  • Walk forward briskly and confidently.
And that’s how you become a stand up sort of person.

Skill 8 Stating your purpose

It is important to state your purpose clearly at the beginning of your talk. Here are some ways to do this:
talk about = to speak about a subject
  • Today I'd like to talk about our plans for the new site.
  • I'm going to be talking to you about the results of our survey.
report on = to tell you about what has been done.
  • I'm going to be reporting on our results last quarter.
  • Today I will be reporting on the progress we have made since our last meeting.
take a look at = to examine
  • First, let's take a look at what we have achieved so far.
  • Before we go on to the figures, I'd like to take a look at the changes we have made.
tell you about = to speak to someone to give them information or instructions
  • First, I will tell you about the present situation, then go onto what we are going to do.
  • When I have finished, Jack will then tell you about what is happening in Europe.
show = to explain something by doing it or by giving instructions.
  • The object of this morning's talk is to show you how to put the theory into practice.
  • Today I'm going to show you how to get the most out of the new software.
outline = to give the main facts or information about something.
  • I'd like to outline the new policy and give you some practical examples.
  • I will only give you a brief outline and explain how it affects you.

fill you in on = to give some extra or missing information
  • I'd like to quickly fill you in on what has happened.
  • When I have finished outlining the policy, Jerry will fill you in on what we want you to do.
give an overview of = to give a short description with general information but no details.
  • Firstly, I would like to give you a brief overview of the situation.
  • I'll give you an overview of our objectives and then hand over to Peter for more details.
highlight = draw attention to or emphasize the important fact or facts.
  • The results highlight our strengths and our weaknesses.
  • I'd now like to go on to highlight some of the advantages that these changes will bring.
discuss = to talk about ideas or opinions on a subject in more detail.
  • I'm now going to go on to discuss our options in more detail.
  • After a brief overview of the results, I'd like to discuss the implications in more detail.
Skill 9 Describing change - verbs

When we are giving a presentation, we often talk about changes. Usually we illustrate these changes with visual aids to show these changes. We need, however, to explain these changes. To do this, we need special verbs.

Skill 10 Describing change - adjectives

When talk about changes, we often need to point out how big or rapid these changes have been. To do this, we need to use adjectives.

Skill 11 Commenting on visuals

When we are giving lots of information, we often use visuals to give an overview. However, we often need to highlight only one or two key points or figures and then comment on them

Skill 12 Emphasizing

Make your presentation more persuasive by making your points stronger. Here is some language to help you: 

a total disaster 
The whole project was a total disaster from beginning to end.

extremely good 
We have an extremely good chance of getting the contract. 

a terrible mistake
It wasn't a minor error. It was a terrible mistake and cost us millions to put right.

much cheaper 
Even if we had taken five per cent off our prices, we wouldn't  have got the contract. They were much cheaper than us.

one hundred percent certain 
There is not the slightest doubt. I am one hundred percent  certain that that is what happened.

highly competitive
This is a highly competitive market. I am not sure we should enter it.

far too expensive 
The Chinese and Koreans can offer much lower prices. We are far too expensive. 

even better 
Their previous smartphone was good but this is even better. 

fully aware 
I am fully aware of all the risks but I still think we should do it.  
absolutely no chance  
There is absolutely no chance that we will lose the contract. They love our work.

Skill 13 Emphasizing 2
Here is some more language to help you make your work more persuasive and make your points stronger : 
openly admit
I openly admit that I have made mistakes.
If they openly admit that they were at fault, they may get the public back on their side. 
totally agree
I totally agree with what Susan said.
I totally agree with the previous speaker.  
strongly recommend 
I strongly recommend that we invest in the Beijing project. The consultants strongly recommend that we pull out of the US completely. 
firmly believe
We firmly believe that this company has an excellent future ahead of it.
I firmly believe that I am the best candidate for the job.
positively encourage
I would like to positively encourage you to apply for the post.
I want to positively encourage you to continue with what you are doing.
fully appreciate
I fully appreciate that investing in the current economic climate is a risk.
We fully appreciate the efforts you have made on our behalf.
categorically deny
I categorically deny that I did anything wrong.
My client categorically denies all the charges.  
absolutely refuse
I absolutely refuse to continue with this.
I absolutely refuse to consider the possibility of failure.

Skill 14 Softening
We have seen how to emphasize points but sometimes you want to soften the impact of what you are saying and give them less importance. 
Here are some ways to do that: 
Compare: 
We made a huge loss. 
We made a loss. 
We made a slight loss. 
The situation has improved  enormously. 
The situation has improved. 
The situation has improved  slightly. 
It is always incredibly difficult to … 
It is difficult to … 
It is sometimes a little difficult to …
Skill 15 Softening 2

We can soften the impact of negative ideas by responding using a positive word with a negative form of the verb. For example, compare:
The results are disappointing.
The results certainly aren't very encouraging, I'm afraid.

Skill 16 Asking for clarification

Sometimes we don't hear or understand what the speaker has said. When this happens, we need to ask for repetition or clarification. Here are some exercises to help you do that.

Skill 17 Asking for clarification

Sometimes you can only ask questions at the end of the talk. In that case, you need to refer back to the point in the talk you need clarification on.

Skill 18 Dealing with questions 1

At the end of your talk, you may get questions. You don't have to answer all the questions - they may not be good questions!
  • If it is a good question, thank the person and answer it.
  • Some of the questions may be irrelevant and not connected to what you want to say. Say so and get another question.
  • Some may be unnecessary because you have already given the answer. Repeat the answer briefly and get the next question.
  • And some may be difficult because you don't have the information. Again, say so and offer to find the information or ask the person asking the question what they think.
When you get a question, comment on it first. This will give you time to think. Here are some useful expressions to help you do that:
  • That's a very interesting question.
  • I'm glad you've asked that question.
  • A good question.
  • I'm sorry but I don't have that information to hand.
  • Can I get back to you about that?
  • I'm afraid I can't answer that.
  • I'm not in a position to comment on that.
  • As I said earlier, …
  • I think I answered that when I said …
  • I did mention that.
  • I don't see the connection.
  • I'm sorry, I don't follow you.
  • I think that is a very different issue. 
Skill 19 Dealing with questions 2

Often we feel that we are not in control at question time but remember it is your presentation, you can control the questions.

Skill 20 Dealing with questions 3

Here are some ways of dealing with questions when you are the SPEAKER:
When you don't want to answer:
  • To be honest, I'm not really the person to ask about that.
When someone interrupts you:
  • Sorry, could I just finish?
When you finally understand what they want to know:
  • Oh I see. So what you are asking is …
When you realise they don't understand what you said:
  • Perhaps I didn't make myself clear. What I was trying to say was …
If you don't want to tell everyone:
  • Perhaps we can talk about it when I have finished.
To close off the presentation:
  • If there are no more questions, we should stop there.
Here are some ways of getting an answer when you are the QUESTIONER:
When the answer doesn't give you the information you want:
  • Yes, that may be so, but what I want to know is …
When the answer is evasive:
  • Yes, but you still haven't answered my question.
If you are sceptical and want more detail:
  • Well, I'm not so sure. Can you give us an example to illustrate that?
If you don't agree:
  • That may be so, but I still think ...
Skill 21 Rhetorical questions

Presentations are more interesting if you use a conversational style. They are more lively and you establish a rapport between you and your audience. You can do this by using a question and answer technique – you ask a question and then answer it. Your questions create anticipation and guide your audience to your point of view.
For example:
Late delivery is a big problem. What is the best solution? There are two possible solutions

Skill 22 Focusing attention

When we really want to focus the attention of our audience on an important point, we can use this "What ……. is …."
Look at these examples:
  • We must cut costs.
  • What we must do is cut costs.
  • We need more reliable suppliers.
  • What we need is more reliable suppliers.
Skill 23 Cause and effect

When you are giving a presentation, your job is to not only present the facts but also to give the reasons (why), the purpose (objectives) and the results.
In a presentation, the language used is often very simple, much simpler than if we were writing.
For example:
Reason:
  • We sold the land because we needed to release the cash.
  • We closed the offices in London because they were too expensive to run.
Purpose:
  • We set up the team to look at possible ways to improve efficiency.
  • We sold the land to get necessary capital for investment.
Result:
  • We sold the land and had enough cash to invest in new equipment.
  • We expanded the sales network and sales increased.



 
Mr. Gibbs' English © 2013. All Rights Reserved.
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